Organisation Structure Harry Kogetsidis School of Business
Lecture’s topics What is organisation structure? What are the basic elements of organisation structure? What are the basic types of organisation structure?
Organisation Structure Organisation structure describes the way work is divided, supervised and coordinated.
Organisation Charts Organisation structure is often represented by an organisation chart – i. e. a chart showing the main departments and work positions in the organisation and the reporting …
An Organisation Chart (example 1)
An Organisation Chart (example 2)
Types of structure Formal structure: The official structure of the organisation. The official guidelines, documents or procedures setting out how the organisation’s activities are divided, supervised …
Types of structure Informal structure: The unofficial, but often critical, working relationships between organisational members. If this could be drawn, it would show who talks to and interacts …
The Basic Elements of Structure 1. Work specialisation 2. Chain of command 3. Span of control 4. Centralisation vs Decentralisation 5. Departmentalisation
Work Specialisation a job is broken down into a number of steps and each step is completed by a separate individual different employees have different skills need to make efficient use of the …
Negative results of work specialisation
Chain of Command The continuous chain of authority that extends from the highest levels in an organisation to the lowest levels and clarifies who reports to whom.
Chain of Command Early management writers believed that each employee should report to only one manager – a term called unity of command.
Chain of Command Some concepts closely related to chain of command: Authority Responsibility Accountability Delegation
Authority The right that a person in a specified role has to make decisions, allocate resources or give instructions. If managers attempt to give instructions beyond their area of formal authority, …
Responsibility An employee’s duty to perform assigned activities and to meet the expectations associated with a task.
Accountability Employees with formal authority over an area are required to report on their work to those above them in the chain of command.
Delegation Managers giving people who are below them in the chain of command the authority to undertake specific activities or decisions.
Authority vs Power Authority Power
Span of Control The number of persons (subordinates) directly reporting to a manager. The right number must be found in order for these people to be managed effectively and efficiently.
Span of Control The level of direct supervision an employee needs decreases with the level of experience they have and training they receive.
Centralisation vs Decentralisation Centralised organisations: decisions are made by a few people at the centre of the organisation. Decentralised organisations: decisions are pushed down to the level …
Departmentalisation refers to how the various activities of the organisation are grouped together into units a manager is in charge of each unit
e. g. Functional Departmentalisation
Types of Structure Mechanistic structure Organic structure (Burns & Stalker, 1961)
Mechanistic Structure High in specialisation. High in centralisation. High in formalisation (i. e. the practice of using written documents to direct and control employees). Communication is vertical.
Organic Structure Knowledge is widely spread. There are few prescriptive job descriptions and rules and regulations are kept to a minimum. Cross-functional team work is encouraged. Communication is …
Types of structure One of the these two types of structure is frequently called a ‘bureaucracy’. Which one is it?
Types of structure Mechanistic structure: Rigid and stable. Organic structure: Flexible and highly adaptive.
Types of structure Mechanistic structure: Best at simple and repetitive tasks. Organic structure: More effective at complex and unique tasks.
Types of structure Mechanistic structures are most effective in stable environments. Organic structures are most effective in dynamic and uncertain environments.
Types of structure Organisations could use a combination of the two types. e. g. finance department – mechanistic advertising department – organic
Group Work Produce an organisation chart that, to the best of your knowledge, represents the structure of the University of Nicosia. Use an exclamation mark for departments or units that you know …
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