Презентация «Acidification in the Arctic»

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Презентация «Acidification in the Arctic»

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Acidification in the Arctic
Acidification in the Arctic
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General Question about Acidification Аcid deposition occurs when sulfuric acid, nitric acid, or hydr
General Question about Acidification Аcid deposition occurs when sulfuric acid, nitric acid, or hydrochloric acid, emitted into or produced in the air as a gas or liquid, deposits to soils, lakes, …
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General Question about Acidification Acid deposition is caused by the emission or atmospheric format
General Question about Acidification Acid deposition is caused by the emission or atmospheric formation of gas- or aqueous-phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4), nitric acid (HNO3), or hydrochloric acid (HCl).
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History of the problem Historically, coal was the first and largest source of anthropogenically prod
History of the problem Historically, coal was the first and largest source of anthropogenically produced atmospheric acids. During the Industrial Revolution, which started in the eighteenth century, …
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History of the problem Method of producing soda ash:
History of the problem Method of producing soda ash:
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рН pH was defined as pH = - log10[H+], where [H+] is the molarity (moles per liter) of H+ in a solut
рН pH was defined as pH = - log10[H+], where [H+] is the molarity (moles per liter) of H+ in a solution containing a solvent and one or more solutes. The pH scalevaries from less than 0 (lots of H+ …
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«Acidification in the Arctic», слайд 7
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Carbonic Acid Water can be acidified in one of several ways. When gas-phase carbon dioxide dissolves
Carbonic Acid Water can be acidified in one of several ways. When gas-phase carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it reacts rapidly with a water molecule to form aqueous carbonic acid [H2CO3(aq)], a …
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A fraction of CO2(g) always dissolves in rainwater. Thus, rainwater, even in the cleanest environmen
A fraction of CO2(g) always dissolves in rainwater. Thus, rainwater, even in the cleanest environment on Earth, is naturally acidic due to the presence of background carbonic acid in it. The pH of …
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Sulfuric Acid When gas-phase sulfuric acid condenses onto rain drops, the resulting aqueous-phase su
Sulfuric Acid When gas-phase sulfuric acid condenses onto rain drops, the resulting aqueous-phase sulfuric acid [H2SO4(aq)], a strong acid, dissociates by
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Nitric acid When gas-phase nitric acid dissolves in raindrops, it forms aqueous nitric acid [HNO3(aq
Nitric acid When gas-phase nitric acid dissolves in raindrops, it forms aqueous nitric acid [HNO3(aq)], a strong acid that dissociates almost completely by
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Hydrochloric Acid When gas-phase hydrochloric acid dissolves in raindrops, it forms aqueous hydrochl
Hydrochloric Acid When gas-phase hydrochloric acid dissolves in raindrops, it forms aqueous hydrochloric acid [HCl(aq)], a strong acid that dissociates almost completely by
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Sources of Acids Some of the enhanced acidity of rainwater from sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and hydr
Sources of Acids Some of the enhanced acidity of rainwater from sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid is natural. Volcanos, for example, emit SO2(g), a source of sulfuric acid, and …
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Sources of Acids Acid deposition occurs when anthropogenically produced acids are deposited to the g
Sources of Acids Acid deposition occurs when anthropogenically produced acids are deposited to the ground, plants, or lakes in dry or wet form. The two most important anthropogenically produced acids …
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Sulfuric Acid Deposition The most abundant acid in the air is usually sulfuric acid [H2SO4(aq)], who
Sulfuric Acid Deposition The most abundant acid in the air is usually sulfuric acid [H2SO4(aq)], whose source is sulfur dioxide gas [SO2(g)], emitted anthropogenically from coal-fire power plants, …
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Power plants usually emit SO2(g) from high stacks so that the pollutant is not easily downwashed to
Power plants usually emit SO2(g) from high stacks so that the pollutant is not easily downwashed to the surface nearby. The higher the stack, the further the wind carries the gas before it is removed …
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the S(IV) and S(VI) families
the S(IV) and S(VI) families
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Gas-Phase Oxidation of S(IV)
Gas-Phase Oxidation of S(IV)
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Aqueous-Phase Oxidation of S(IV)
Aqueous-Phase Oxidation of S(IV)
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Nitric acid deposition
Nitric acid deposition
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Effect of acid deposition. London-type smog were recorded in London in the IX and XX centuries. Dece
Effect of acid deposition. London-type smog were recorded in London in the IX and XX centuries. December 1873 (270–700 deaths more than the average rate), January 1880 (700–1,100 excess deaths), …
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Effect of acid deposition. Effects on Lakes and Streams Effects on Biomass
Effect of acid deposition. Effects on Lakes and Streams Effects on Biomass
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Effect of acid deposition Effects on Buildings and Sculptures
Effect of acid deposition Effects on Buildings and Sculptures
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Acidification in the Arctic
Acidification in the Arctic
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Sources Industrial areas farther south contribute to Arctic air pollution Most sulfur in Arctic air
Sources Industrial areas farther south contribute to Arctic air pollution Most sulfur in Arctic air comes from industrial areas further south. Eurasia (40 percent) and eastern North America (20 …
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Sources outside the Arctic
Sources outside the Arctic
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Natural sources The algae in ocean surface waters are a source of sulfur to the atmosphere in the fo
Natural sources The algae in ocean surface waters are a source of sulfur to the atmosphere in the form of dimethylsulfide (DMS: СН3 – S - CH3), which is oxidized in the atmosphere to sulfur dioxide, …
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Ammonia (NH3) is also involved in acidification processes; it is a neutralizing compound in the atmo
Ammonia (NH3) is also involved in acidification processes; it is a neutralizing compound in the atmosphere, but acts as a net acidifying agent in soils. Ammonia combines with sulfuric acid in the …
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Sources within the Arctic Metal smelters have the largest emissions within the Arctic Production of
Sources within the Arctic Metal smelters have the largest emissions within the Arctic Production of copper, nickel and other nonferrous metals from sulfur-bearing ores create the largest emissions of …
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Sources within the Arctic Exploitation and usage of fossil fuels Within the Arctic, there is coal mi
Sources within the Arctic Exploitation and usage of fossil fuels Within the Arctic, there is coal mining on Spitsbergen (Norway), in Vorkuta (Russia) and in the Tiksi region (northeastern Siberia). …
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Sources within the Arctic Shipping and fishing activities are also sources of air pollutants in the
Sources within the Arctic Shipping and fishing activities are also sources of air pollutants in the Arctic. For example, extensive deep-sea fishing for cod, capelin and prawns takes place in the …
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Natural emissions There are areas of volcanic activity in the North Atlantic and Bering Sea regions,
Natural emissions There are areas of volcanic activity in the North Atlantic and Bering Sea regions, and in southern Alaska, however, the associated sulfur emissions are relatively low and sporadic. …
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Natural emissions In winter, anthropogenic sources account for almost all of the sulfur in the Arcti
Natural emissions In winter, anthropogenic sources account for almost all of the sulfur in the Arctic atmosphere, whereas in summer about 30% of the sulfur is from natural sources.
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Local energy production is a small source Emissions from energy production in the Arctic are general
Local energy production is a small source Emissions from energy production in the Arctic are generally low because the population is sparse. There are coal-fired power plants in Vorkuta and Inta in …
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Nitrogen emissions are less important Burning of fossils fuels also creates nitrogen oxides. In more
Nitrogen emissions are less important Burning of fossils fuels also creates nitrogen oxides. In more densely populated areas, traffic and power production are the most important sources. Emissions …
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Atmospheric processes The fate of sulfur and nitrogen emissions depends on what happens in the atmos
Atmospheric processes The fate of sulfur and nitrogen emissions depends on what happens in the atmosphere. Light, moisture, and reactive chemical compounds in the air act together to transform sulfur …
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«Acidification in the Arctic», слайд 37
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The atmospheric chemistry of the sulfur cycle The atmospheric chemistry of the sulfur cycle is domin
The atmospheric chemistry of the sulfur cycle The atmospheric chemistry of the sulfur cycle is dominated by OH radical reactions in the gas phase with H2S, DMS, and SO2, all of which lead to the …
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Nitrogen chemistry Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N02) are the two most important nitrogen
Nitrogen chemistry Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N02) are the two most important nitrogen oxide air pollutants. They are frequently lumped together under the designation NOx , although …
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«Acidification in the Arctic», слайд 40
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«Acidification in the Arctic», слайд 41
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Effect in the Arctic Loss of soil fertility contributes to tree death Most Arctic mineral soils are
Effect in the Arctic Loss of soil fertility contributes to tree death Most Arctic mineral soils are naturally acidic, because slow weathering limits the rate at which they can replace the base ions …
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«Acidification in the Arctic», слайд 43
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Effect in the Arctic Sulfur dioxide has damaged the forest, killed lichens and some shrubs Sensitive
Effect in the Arctic Sulfur dioxide has damaged the forest, killed lichens and some shrubs Sensitive invertebrates have disappeared


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